Complexity Explorer

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Introduction to Agent-Based Modeling

Lead instructor:



Modeling Commons

NetLogo Supplemental Material

NetLogo field guide



Agent-Based Modeling Links


Unit by Unit Files




Wilensky, Uri and Rand, William (2015).  An Introduction to Agent-Based Modeling:  Modeling Natural, Social, and Engineered Complex Systems with NetLogo (MIT Press).


Wilensky, U. (1998). NetLogo Flocking model. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.    

Craig Raynolds, The Boids Model:

Wilensky, Uri, and S. Papert. "Restructurations: Reformulations of knowledge disciplines through new representational forms." Constructionism (2010).

Papert, Seymour, et al. "Final Report of the Brookline LOGO Project. Part III: Profiles of Individual Student's Work." (1979).

Schelling, Thomas C. "Models of segregation." The American Economic Review 59.2 (1969): 488-493.

Stonedahl, Forrest, William Rand, and Uri Wilensky. "Evolving viral marketing strategies." Proceedings of the 12th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation. ACM, 2010.

Densmore, Owen, et al. "santa fe on fire: Agent-Based Modeling of Wildfire Evacuation Dynamics."

Brown, Daniel G., et al. "Spatial process and data models: Toward integration of agent-based models and GIS." Journal of Geographical Systems 7.1 (2005): 25-47.

Brown, Daniel G., et al. "Agent-based and analytical modeling to evaluate the effectiveness of greenbelts." Environmental Modelling & Software 19.12 (2004): 1097-1109.

Lorenz, Edward. Predictability: does the flap of a butterfly's wing in Brazil set off a tornado in Texas?. na, 1972.

Page, Scott E. The difference: How the power of diversity creates better groups, firms, schools, and societies. Princeton University Press, 2008.

Axelrod, Robert. "Advancing the art of simulation in the social sciences." Simulating social phenomena. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1997. 21-40.

Casti, John L. "Seeing the light at El Farol: a look at the most important problem in complex systems theory." Complexity 1.5 (1996): 7-10.

Resnick, Mitchel, and Uri Wilensky. "Beyond the deterministic, centralized mindsets: New thinking for new sciences." annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Atlanta, GA. 1993.    


Bonabeau, E., Funes, P. & Orme, B. (2003). Exploratory Design Of Swarms. 2nd International Workshop on the Mathematics and Algorithms of Social Insects. Georgia Institute of technology, Atlanta, GA.


Arthur, W. Brian. "Inductive reasoning and bounded rationality." The American economic review 84.2 (1994): 406-411.

Fogel, David B., Kumar Chellapilla, and Peter J. Angeline. "Inductive reasoning and bounded rationality reconsidered." IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation 3.2 (1999): 142-146.


Mahajan, Vijay, Eitan Muller, and Rajendra K. Srivastava. "Determination of adopter categories by using innovation diffusion models." Journal of Marketing Research (1990): 37-50.

Bass, Frank M. "A new product growth for model consumer durables." Management science 15.5 (1969): 215-227.


Rand, William, and Roland T. Rust. "Agent-based modeling in marketing: Guidelines for rigor." International Journal of Research in Marketing 28.3 (2011): 181-193.

Stonedahl, Forrest, William Rand, and Uri Wilensky. "Evolving viral marketing strategies." Proceedings of the 12th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation. ACM, 2010.

Wilensky, Uri, and William Rand. "Making models match: Replicating an agent-based model." Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 10.4 (2007): 2.

Axtell, Robert, et al. "Aligning simulation models: A case study and results." Computational & Mathematical Organization Theory 1.2 (1996): 123-141.


Von Neumann, John, and Arthur W. Burks. "Theory of self-reproducing automata." IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks 5.1 (1966): 3-14.

Holland, John H. Adaptation in natural and artificial systems: an introductory analysis with applications to biology, control, and artificial intelligence. U Michigan Press, 1975.

Holland, John Henry. Hidden order: How adaptation builds complexity. Basic Books, 1995.

Resnick, Mitchel, Stephen Ocko, and Seymour Papert. "LEGO, Logo, and design." Children's Environments Quarterly (1988): 14-18.

McCarthy, John. "History of LISP." History of programming languages I. ACM, 1978.

Kay, Alan C. "The early history of Smalltalk." History of programming languages---II. ACM, 1996.